Diversity at Pardee RAND
Photo by Diane Baldwin/RAND Corporation
Photo by Diane Baldwin/RAND Corporation
Why and how does diversity matter in a PhD program? No known algorithm links various dimensions of diversity to various educational outcomes. But it is clear that our students and our faculty, as well as the leadership of the School and of RAND, celebrate diversity.
The official policies of both the School and RAND also emphasize diversity. Pardee RAND is following a strategy with several components. First, we have created an educational experience in which diversity is a strength. Second, we want to convey the message about that experience to diverse groups. Third, we emphasize diversity in the admissions process.
In terms of their enhancing education, diverse points of view and life experiences presumably matter more in some fields than in others. For example, in graduate studies in clinical psychology there may be more opportunities for diversity to matter than in graduate studies of pure mathematics. Policy analysis falls at the "matters more" end of the spectrum, particularly in the direction the Pardee RAND Graduate School is now moving.
The major problems confronting our localities, our country, and the world no longer fall into neat categories of public or private, leave this to the state or let that go to the market. From education to health care, in regulatory reform and city services, in areas of defense management ranging from procurement to outsourcing to privatization, in areas of international security ranging from cyberspace to terrorism, today’s issues involve governments and businesses and citizens interacting, sometimes in new institutional settings. Tomorrow’s agenda will go beyond "the choice" by "the decision maker" and beyond public management to embrace the reform of the institutions of both state and market and the improvement of partnerships among these institutions.
Policy research that makes a difference will focus on such aspects as
The emerging agenda gives even greater salience to such things as stakeholders, institutions, and sociocultural settings. Policy research will feature a renewed appreciation of context and process. The idea of "size-up-and-solve social science" – Clifford Geertz’s memorable put-down – will be replaced by one that recognizes that proffered solutions must be adapted to diverse situations and settings. Policy research may become more embedded in relationships, and its clients will be multiple (public, private, non-profit – sometimes all three together).
Note the relevance of these trends to diversity. As our course work gives ever greater attention to these aspects of policy research, it will give more and more substantive attention to the diversity of stakeholders, institutions, sociocultural settings, and partnerships, both actual and potential. On-the-job training will increasingly involve these issues. The School recognizes that exploring these matters will be greatly enhanced by a student body that is diverse in sociocultural backgrounds, institutional experiences, and policy interests.
We also believe that doing research on many of these matters will require greater analytical and mathematical sophistication--for example, to engage with the new institutional economics, with the information revolution, with the estimation of "interaction effects" among policy choices and sociocultural settings, and with the modeling of complex adaptive systems ranging from inner city dynamics to battlefields to learning behavior in a diverse economy. For the new agenda, Pardee RAND students will have to have ever better skills in economics, statistics, and modeling.
Is there a tension here, between more attention to culture, process, and institutions and more attention to analytical methodologies? Some people think so, and they pose a kind of C.P. Snow dichotomy between analytical approaches and contextual ones. But we want to marry the two. For the next generation of policy analysts, both analytical prowess and sociocultural sensitivity will be crucial. Again, this underscores the central importance of a diverse student body.
Within a given subject or specialty, the value of diversity probably varies with the way the educational experience is organized. For example, diversity probably has less of a chance to make a difference when the predominant mode of learning is the lecture, when all academic work is carried out at the individual student level, when the objective is passing down received knowledge instead of developing sophistication and creativity, and where there is fairly clearly a correct answer or approach as opposed to an area where wisdom clearly comes from the critical appreciation of different approaches.
In each of these areas, the Pardee RAND experience is organized to make diversity a strength.
Modes of learning. At Pardee RAND the lecture is one of the less important modes. Pardee RAND classes are small. Students are able and mature, so there is little problem in motivating them to master material. A key pedagogical objective is to inspire their creativity. Consequently, because of the School’s scale, students, and educational objectives, most classes at Pardee RAND emphasize discussion and debate, wherein a diverse class is an educational strength. Even in the School’s methodological courses, there are many applications to real problems, where exposure to diverse perspectives and experiences helps students and faculty members to discern the methodologies’ uses and limitations.
A unique feature of the Pardee RAND educational experience is the importance of working with senior mentors doing real policy research. We call this on-the-job training (OJT), which is perhaps too industrial a metaphor. OJT almost always involves students in interdisciplinary teams. They participate in tasks ranging from preparing proposals to delivering briefings. They gain experience working with clients in the public and the private sectors, at the local, national, and international levels. In these activities, diversity is a source of strength and of learning.
Individual and group work. Students are responsible for their individual mastery, and they receive individual grades in their classes. But a major mode of learning is group work. For example, in the four "accelerated OJT" mini-courses that students take during their first two quarters at Pardee RAND, they work together with leading RAND researchers on emerging issues where the answers and the approaches are not well understood. Sometimes in subgroups, sometimes as a class, they work together trying to figure out what kinds of research would help illuminate these issues. In this joint assessment of different ways of looking at issues, the class’s diversity is a powerful strength.
Passing along received knowledge vs. developing critical skills and sophistication. The Pardee RAND experience embraces the latter. True, the School emphasizes the acquisition of world-class skills in economics, statistics, and modeling. But most courses offered at Pardee RAND try to convey sophistication rather than to stack students’ minds with six boxes of knowledge.
For example, the course "Behavioral Science Perspectives" eschews the idea of a survey course, in favor of pursuing in depth a few topics where students can appreciate how behavioral science is done, how it gets applied and misapplied to policy issues, what sorts of debates characterize the field, and how evidence is marshaled and how ideology matters or does not. The course "Science and Technology" looks at one example and helps students get inside scientific debates and demystify them, showing how these debates connect and fail to connect with the policy process, understanding where research does and does not seem to make a difference.
The same broad philosophy holds for most Pardee RAND policy workshops in areas such as health, education, demography, intelligence policy, criminal justice, and international security. The instructors do not see their tasks as providing a survey of the broad waterfront, as making sure students have covered all the major topics and themes (and "passing along received knowledge"). Instead, instructors choose a few topics they believe are particularly illuminating about the promise and pitfalls of analysis to deal with important policy questions. They choose topics where students can get to the state-of-the-art, and maybe help to push it a bit further. This philosophy means that discussion and debate are crucial, and therefore that diversity in the classroom again is a strength.
A correct answer vs. an appreciation of different approaches. Even in methodological courses, Pardee RAND emphasizes different ways of looking at data, of modeling a problem, of correcting for selection effects, of characterizing aggregate demand, and so forth. Our instructors try to help students live through an apparent paradox:
At the frontiers of our fields are theoretical debates and different approaches to practice, which however we can only fully join after we have attained a level of technical mastery.
From first-year courses on, students both master the tools of the fields they are studying and consider through examples the alternative ways such tools might be used (and yes, misused). Given this way of organizing the educational experience, diversity in the classroom is a big plus.
To summarize, in both what we teach (and will teach) and how we organize the educational experience, Pardee RAND recognizes that a diverse student body enhances learning. Indeed, it is fair to say that we choose what we teach and how in part so that a diverse student body can educate each other and us.
The second prong of the strategy is to convey the message to diverse groups.
We believe that the Pardee RAND experience should be attractive to groups whose diversity will enhance the education and who are underrepresented at the School. Here is a chance to join some of the ablest graduate students in the world and dig in on some of the most important issues of the day. Here is a chance to combine a superb curriculum with practical experience working on real projects with senior mentors. The program is fully funded–including tuition, health care, an office, a computer, a telephone, and a stipend–all based on earnings from OJT. Graduates have no trouble getting jobs. Combine the pieces–intellectual excitement; practical contributions; access to the fabled RAND culture; full funding; and a PhD with a bright future in public service, academia, the private sector, or non-government organizations–and the package should excite a wide audience.
The overarching message is this: What we do at Pardee RAND matches the interests and aspirations of diverse groups. The next task is to make sure people who will add educational diversity get this message, and get it from channels and in ways they will appreciate.
For example, for many years Pardee RAND has aggressively sought African-Americans, and it continues to do so. Many African-American students are interested in addressing social and economic issues connected with poverty and inequality; this is true of many other minority groups as well. We want to make sure that these students see that what they will learn at Pardee RAND, and what they can do in their OJT and dissertations, has exciting possibilities for making a difference to those issues. In our publications and elsewhere on this website, we indicate the kinds of OJT opportunities and dissertation topics that we hope will help people with diverse aspirations see how they can in fact be satisfied here.
A particularly attractive pool are members of underrepresented groups who happen to be pursuing graduate work in economics, statistics, business, and the sciences and who have discovered that they would like something more, something different. For example, most graduate departments of economics offer almost no chances during the first years to apply what is learned to pressing economic policy issues. We are interested in all such graduate students with the requisite passion and discipline – and particularly in those who are also members of underrepresented groups. We hope to attract some of the best of those now planning to be scientists, economists, statisticians, and so forth but who hope to apply their expertise to dealing with the world’s problems.
Once the applicant pool is generated, it is important that the admissions process consider diversity carefully. This is pursued at Pardee RAND in several ways. First, by expressing the philosophy of diversity in the policy guidance the committee receives. Second, by studying possible biases in commonly used admissions criteria, such as standardized test scores. Third, by ensuring diversity on the admissions committee. And finally, during the admissions process, by pausing toward the end to reconsider the admitted class as a whole, in the context of various kinds of diversity.
Diversity is essential to the Pardee RAND educational experience. Students and faculty aspire to make it one of our hallmarks. We have created an educational program where diversity thrives. We hope to convey a powerful message to groups who will contribute to that diversity. The most important of that message is that what they can learn and do here will satisfy their diverse aspirations. Finally, we have implemented an admissions process that collectively and subjectively gives diversity a priority.
We are proud of the diversity exhibited in the Pardee RAND student body. We also recognize that achieving diversity requires constant effort and improvement, where success cannot be precisey defined but nonetheless represents one of our highest values.