Lowering the costs of healthy foods in supermarkets increases the amount of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain foods that people eat, while also appearing to reduce consumption of nutritionally less-desirable foods.
The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) provides cadets with both military training and a four-year college education similar to that offered at civilian institutions. Unlike at civilian institutions, however, USAFA academic classes are taught by a mix of active-duty military officers and civilian professors.
Quantitative analysis is often indispensable to sound planning, but with deep uncertainty, predictions can lead decisionmakers astray. Robust Decision Making supports good decisions without predictions by testing plans against many futures.
Analysis of data on suicide attacks in Israel suggest that assessing sociocultural, political, economic, and demographic factors in addition to geospatial data enhances the ability to predict future suicide attack targets.
PRGS professor and alum Cheryl Damberg (cohort '89) testified before Congress. Among her conclusions: "Revising physician payment is a daunting challenge, but one that is absolutely necessary. Performance-based payment reform is vital to driving improvements in health care delivery."
According to research by PRGS student Yashodhara Rana (cohort '09) and colleagues, total U.S. government funding for the Global Methane Initiative, a voluntary international partnership that promotes methane recovery and reuse activities in developing and transition economies, was approximately $54 million between fiscal years 2006 and 2010, with most coming from the Department of State (52 percent) and a large share from the EPA (37 percent).
By 2030, California's entire elderly population is projected to double what it was in 2000. This profile provides a factual framework to help consumer advocates, health care providers, and policymakers better understand California's Medicare population and inform their efforts to design programs and policies.
Lessons from the Military Leadership Diversity Commission can inform civilian police department hiring and personnel management towards diversity. This report focuses on steps that law enforcement agencies can take to foster a racially and ethnically diverse workforce.
South Dakota's 24/7 Sobriety Project, in which individuals with alcohol-involved offenses submit to breathalyzer tests twice per day or wear an alcohol monitoring bracelet at all times, reduced repeat DUI arrests at the county level by 12 percent. These results support the view that swift, certain, and modest penalties associated with frequent monitoring can deter problem drinking and improve public health. The results may also offer an encouraging model for deterring problem behavior related to other forms of substance abuse. Further exploration and research will need to confirm whether this approach works equally well when extended to other jurisdictions and when combined with positive incentives and treatment services.
South Dakota's 24/7 Sobriety Project, in which individuals with alcohol-involved offenses submit to breathalyzer tests twice per day or wear an alcohol monitoring bracelet at all times, reduced repeat DUI arrests at the county level by 12 percent.
Incentives to participate in wellness programs or reach health-related targets are popular, but could expose employers and insurers to litigation risk because incentives might violate state and federal insurance, anti-discrimination, or privacy laws.
Building on RAND work examining the cost-effectiveness of modernizing the U.S. Air Force's KC-10 aerial refueling tanker to comply with airspace modernization mandates, this study extended the analysis to the C-5, C-17, C-130, and KC-135 fleets.
Research evidence has many gaps, but treatment guidelines for children with autism spectrum disorders represent a significant step forward. Future research should focus on assessment and monitoring of outcomes, the needs of pre- or non-verbal children, and the most effective treatment strategies and duration.
PRGS alumnus Jordan Ostwald (cohort '08) worked with RAND colleagues to develop a disaster preparedness planning tool. As municipalities dig out from Sandy and plan for the future, this could prove quite helpful.
In an excellent example of how PRGS helps RAND innovate to make a difference in the world, an all-PRGS team developed a model to assess flood risk in coastal Louisiana: Professor (and alum) Jordan Fischbach (cohort '04), Professor David Ortiz, students David Johnson (cohort '08) and Matthew Hoover (cohort '09), and alumni Ben Bryant (cohort '05) and Jordan Ostwald (cohort '08).
Interventions that address potentially detrimental consequences of low socioeconomic status and adverse school environments among pre-adolescent Latino and black children may help reduce racial and ethnic differences in child health, according to research by PRGS alumnus Mark Schuster (cohort '91).
PRGS student Tewodaj "Todi" Mengistu (cohort '07) is a coauthor of a recent RAND report on democratization in the Arab world. A key takeaway: Policymakers in the United States and other nations should be wary of "rules of thumb" and simplified predictions of how political change will happen.
Violent crimes against individuals make headlines, but other types of criminal activity affect day-to-day life more than people may realize. For his On-the-Job Training, Pardee RAND Student Alessandro Malchiodi (cohort '08) is working with RAND researchers to quantify the scope, size, and impact of counterfeiting and piracy in the European Union.
As part of his On-the-Job Training, Pardee RAND student Christopher McClaren (cohort '05) is working with the RAND Center for Health and Safety in the Workplace to explore ways to improve workplace safety.
Despite growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic, research by PRGS alumna Ashlesha Datar (cohort '99) shows that the availability does not significantly increase BMI or obesity among a group of fifth-graders.
As part of their On-the-Job Training, Pardee RAND Student Christopher Sharon (cohort '07) and David R. Johnson (cohort '08) were members of the RAND team that developed models and the planning tool for Louisiana's 2012 Coastal Master Plan.
RAND is working with the State of Yucatan, Mexico, to design and evaluate a non-contributory social security program for larger towns. As part of their On-the-Job Training, Pardee RAND students Claudia Diaz (cohort '06), Sarah Outcault (cohort '07), and Alessandro Malchiodi (cohort '08) are working with the RAND Center for Latin American Social Policy on this effort.
Clinical decision support (CDS), which provides both targeted and general information to health care providers using electronic health records, helps to improve health outcomes. Pardee RAND student Amber Smith (cohort '09) and her RAND colleagues developed a process for identifying and prioritizing the most promising targets for CDS.
As one of his On-the-Job Training projects, Pardee RAND student Jim Burgdorf (cohort '06) worked with researchers in RAND Europe and the Drug Policy Research Center to analyze the illicit drug market in the European Union.
Most local public health and emergency management professionals rely on what they perceive the legal environment to be rather than on an adequate understanding of the objective legal requirements, according to an article coauthored by student Helen Wu (cohort '07) in the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law.